Intelligent RFID


IntRFID project is co-funded by European Regional Development fund under Operative program regional competitiveness and call: „Strengthening capacities for research, development and innovation”.

Project named “Wirelessly Powered microelectronic circuit for distributed sensor Networks” is carried out from 20.10.2014 until 20.02.2016. with overall project budget near 3 million HRK contracted through Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Croatia. Partners in this project are Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), University of Zagreb and Locus Ltd.

Main project targets are promoting research and development activities according to the needs of the industry, acquisition of the equipment for the research activities, upgrading infrastructure for research and development and innovation activities and technology transfer to the company.

Intellectual property that is result of this project is a joint property of FER and Locus Ltd.

FER's project web page: IntRFID 


IntRFID System


Block scheme presents building blocks of the developed IntRFID tag system. It is composed of the energy harvesting module (AC/DC conversion), voltage and current references, voltage regulators, ADC, RF demodulator for the received signal (ASK demodulation), RF modulator for the transmit signal (antenna modulation), oscillator and the digital control logic for the EPC Gen2 protocol implementation.

Analogue blocks are based on new developed circuit architectures developed for low power requirements. Modules' characteristics are listed here.

New regression based model for AC/DC rectifier was developed to speed up SPICE simulations of the complete system (AC/DC rectifier and the analogue blocks in circuit power up). This model provide enormous decrease of the SPICE run duration and therefore allows running more detailed simulations in the design phase.

Developed circuit architectures and model resulted in a several scientific papers that are listed here.



IntRFID tag chip was processed in two 180 nm technologies: UMC and AMS. Five prototype runs were used to process building blocks as well as the complete IntRFID system.

Measurements on the prototypes were performed using custom designed PCB boards together with the Arduino microcontroller support for the measurements automation. RFID protocol was measured using standard RFID reader ThingMagic M6.

Block scheme for the IntRFID system measurement is shown on the figure below.




Locus Ltd is offering know-how in RFID systems and applications. We offer consultations starting from the feasibility phase, during the development phase up to the product commercialization and serial production.

In the feasibility phase we help our customers in defining product features and specifications and provide suitable options for addressing application requirements. That includes modelling of the system, assessment of different options for implementing required functionality and finally choosing best option for our clients. This phase results in the system specification.

In the development phase Locus offers design services in microelectronic design and the PCB design. Based on the new developed circuit architectures for RFID systems as well as general knowledge and expertise in mixed signal design we provide optimal circuit solutions for the chosen technology. Integration of the developed chip prototype with the microcontroller unit on the PCB board results in the system prototype that is ready for the testing of the chip prototype as well as the complete system. Locus’ expertise in IC testing and embedded system development is an assurance that executed tests on the system covers all cases in the planned application.

In the final phase of the product commercialization Locus Ltd offers project management services in preparation for the serial production which includes all technical steps that leads to the final product and application.